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What is a calculator and how does it work?

What is a calculator and how does it work?

What is a calculator?

Whenever we have to do a big calculation, we miss the Calculator more. But did you think that what this calculator is and how soon it completes all the mathematical calculations. Does the calculator have different types and how does it work? If these questions have ever come to your mind and you have not found much information about what is a calculator and how it works, then there is nothing to worry about because you we I will know only,

We often ignore the feature of small devices, meaning that the instruments that are as small as the palms of our hands, we do not give much importance to them. The same thing happens with our calculating device. Yes friends, it is small in appearance, but it turns very big sums into jokes. Talking about Calculation, then in our mind also we can do a lot of small calculations but it also has a limit and after that we start having trouble in it.

That's why we humans have been making such instruments since the beginning, so that we can help in the calculation. As of now, these calculators are now used as an application in our SmartPhones by running from different devices. But even if you find it a bit strange to hear, calculators have to go through many evolutionary steps, then we are able to see and use this form of this instrument.

What is Calculator?

A calculator is an electronic hardware device or software that is capable of performing very mathematical calculations such as addition, multiplication, subtraction, and division. The first commercialized electronic calculator was launched by Casio Computer Company in the year 1957. Since then, considerable changes have been seen in the sizes, features and functions of calculators.
The manufacturers brought this change according to the needs of the people and according to the usage. They even started making it for computers, smartphones and tablets in their operating systems. Many operating systems such as Windows, iOS, Android, Mac have their own inbuild Calculator application.


history of calculator
calculators history.


The word calculator r is derived from the Latin word calculare, which means to count by using stones.

We use these calculators so much that they have become a part of our lives. The price of these calculators depends on their features, application and size. In recent times, it has become very important to learn its use. This is because in the present time there is a need for more time and by saving our calculation it saves a lot of our time. Also, the demand of Scientific Calculators has increased considerably due to the use of the need, because there are many such functions that Enginners, architects, scientists need to do their work.


History of calculator.


There was a time when these numbers did not exist at all. Humans used their hands and feet fingers on counting devices. But this was not enough because when it came to a large number, it became impossible to calculate. Then our civilization invented abacus, which is the oldest calculating tool except fingers.
Right now, even though they are not used that much, Abacus was the only device that started calculating machine in human civilization. Then slowly there was a lot of change in this calculating machine and finally this calculator was created which we use for our calculation. But it did not happen very soon, rather it took many years to happen, about which we are going to know further. Next you will know about the most important Calculation Machines according to their manufacturer and year.

1623: FIRST ADDING MACHINE
Device Name: Calculating Clock
Inventor: Wilhelm Schickard

Schickard's "Calculating Clock" had multiplying devices, such as a mechanism used to record intermediate results, as well as a 6-digit decimal adding device.

1773: FIRST FUNCTIONAL Calculator
Inventor: Philip Matthäus Hahn.

Hahn's feeling was to design a machine that would help them calculate clock parameters and planetarium.

So he based his calculator on a "Stepped Reckoner" calculating machine developed by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in 1672. Hahn's calculator consisted of a set of twelve drums which were in a circular arrangement and to activate it, a crank was used which was present in the axis of the drums.

1820: First COMMERCIALLY PRODUCED MECHANICAL Calculator
Device Name: Arithmometer
Inventor: Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar.

This arithmometer was the first such calculating machine that was commercially very successful as it could perform all four basic operations - that is addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

1954: FIRST ALL-TRANSISTOR Calculator
Device Name: IBM 608
Inventor: IBM

This IBM 608 was the first calculating machine to use solid-state transistors in exchange for vacuum tubes. The main memory of this machine could store about 40 nine-digit numbers and could operate about 4,500 additions per second. More than 3,000 germanium transistors were used in this IBM 608.

1961: FIRST ALL-ELECTRONIC DESKTOP Calculator
Device Name: ANITA MK-8
Inventor: Bell Punch.

In 1956, Bell Punch Co. Which was a company in Great Britain, instead of manufacturing ticket punches, he thought of doing something different and created a commercial electronic desktop Calculator, which he codenamed ANITA. About 170 cold cathode vacuum tubes, a Dekatron decade counter tube and Numicator display / indicator tubes were used in this machine.

1967: FIRST HANDHELD Calculator
Device Name: Cal Tech
Inventor: Texas Instruments (TI)

According to the Texas Instruments website, "Cal Tech" was a codename and named the device that was being developed at the time, and was commercially released in 1970. This 45-ounce Calculator had a small keyboard with 18 keys and a visual output that could display up to 12 decimal digits.

1971: The first TRULY POCKET-SIZED ELECTRONIC Calculator used LED DISPLAY
Device Name: Busicom LE-120A "HANDY"
Inventor: Busicom

The Busicom LE-120A, also known as HANDY, was the first handheld Calculator to use a "Calculator on a chip" integrated circuit. Since this Calculator was quite expensive at the time, a wrist strap was attached to it in its base so that it could be saved from falling somewhere.

1974: FIRST HANDHELD PROGRAMMABLE Calculator
Device Name: HP-65
Inventor: Hewlett-Packard.

It was first manufactured by Hewlett-Packard as a "Personal Computer". These calculators allowed users to buy either pre-programmed cards or to write programs themselves that were about 100 lines long and were recorded in blank cards.
The Calculator was priced at $ 795 when it was launched in 1974. In 1975, when the first joint U.S.-Soviet space flight took off, it became the first handheld calculator that was sent to outer space.

1985: FIRST GRAPHING Calculator
Device Name: Casio fx-7000G
Inventor: Casio.

This Casio fx-7000G was developed with 422 bytes of memory and it could store about 10 programs in its 10 program slots. Current graphing calculators such as TI-83 use the display format of this fx-7000G.

2003: FIRST GRAPHING Calculator WITH TOUCH FUNCTIONALITY
Device Name: Sharp EL-9650
Inventor: Sharp.

When people thought of touch devices, and the use of their fingers, then Sharp had a different idea and started the first stylus-based graphing calculator.
The EL-9650 had a slideshow functionality that allows teachers to teach pre-programmed lessons and formulas in the Calculator.

2010: FIRST COLOR GRAPHING Calculator
Device Name: Casio PRIZM
Inventor: Casio.

When all mobile devices quickly went into full-color screens in the early 2000s, then graphing calculators took some time to catch up. Casio’s PRIZM Calculator, launched in late 2010 with its advanced, 216 × 384 resolution, full-color display.
These PRIZM allowed students to create graphs above the image, which enabled them to understand the real-world applications of their work. And better started using this Graphic Calculator.





What happens inside the calculator?

If you had opened a 19th-century calculator, you would have found many small parts within it: including precision gears, axles, rods, and levers, which have been well greased, and which have been You were clicking and whirll also when you type a number. But the modern calculator is different because you will see many small devices in it. Let's know about them:

1. Input: Keyboard: which consists of 40 tiny plastic keys, below which there is a rubber membrane and a touch-sensitive circuit.

2. Processor: A microchip that does all the hard work. It does all the work that gears used to do in the earlier calculus.
3. Output: A liquid crystal display (LCD) that shows you numbers when you type something and also show the result of your calculation.
4. Power source: A long-life battery which is often a "button" cell that lasts for many years. Some calculators also use solar cell which provides free power in daylight.

What happens when you press a key?

When a key is pressed down then there are many things in your calculator, let's know about them.



1. As soon as you press hard plastic, then you also press that rubber membrane below.

2. This rubber button pushes down, making an electrical contact between the two layers in the keyboard sensor and this thing also detects the keyboard circuit.
3. This processor figures out from the chip, which key has been pressed.
4. A circuit activates in this processor chip the appropriate segments in the display corresponding to the numbers that you press.

5. Even if you have pressed more numbers, the processor chip will show them in the display - and it will do so until you press any operation keys (like +, -, ×, ÷) so that There should be another operation. If you have done + keypress, then Calculator will store that number in a small memory called a register. Now it will wipe the display and will wait for you when you are going to enter another number. As soon as you enter another number, then the processor chip will display it digit-by-digit and store it in a register. Finally, when you press the = key, the Calculator adds both contents and displays in the result. This was basic working of a calculator.


Type of calculator:-

If you look in the internet or in the market then you will find many types of calculators. All these calculators have different functions and they are used by people of different ages. So let's know about the different types of these calculators.
Basic Calculator
What can it do?
Add
Subtract
Multiply
Divide
Percentages
Square roots
Simple memory function.

Suitable for:

Primary school age children
They are used in general homes



Scientific Calculator:-

what can it do?
i. Combinations
ii. Coordinate conversion
iii. Degrees
iv. Degrees/minutes/seconds
v. Exponential regression
vi. Exponents
vii. Expression editing
viii. Factorials
ix. FIX/SCI/NORM
x. Fractions
xi. Gradians
xii. Hyperbolics
xiii. Inverse regression
xiv. Linear regression
xv. Logarithm
xvi. Logarithmic regression
xvii. Negative Indicator
xviii. Permutations
xix. Power regression
xx. Quadratic regression
xxi. Radians
xxii. Random numbers
xxiii. Reciprocals
xxiv. Roots & powers
xxv. Standard deviation
xxvi. Table of a function
xxvii. Trigonometric (SIN/COS/TAN)
xxviii. Multi-replay.

Graphic Calculator:-

i. Angle measurements(DEG/RAD/GRA)
ii. Bar chart
iii. Combinations (nCr) & permutations (nPr)
iv. Complex numbers
v. Confidence intervals (Z & T)
vi. DEC/HEX/BIN/OCT conversions
vii. Distribution Tests (Z, t, chi, ANOVA)
viii. Distributions (NORM/T/CHI/Fbinomial/poisson)
ix. Dynamic graphing
x. FIX/SCI/NORM
xi. Fractions
xii. Graphing
xiii. Hyperbolic / Inverse Hyperbolic
xiv. Inequality
xv. Logic Operations.

Financial Calculator.-

i. Amortization
ii. Cash flow (Investment Appraisal)
iii. Compound Interest Calculations
iv. Conversions
v. Cost sell margin और day calculations
vi. Exponential regression
vii. Full scientific functions
viii. Linear regression
ix. Logarithmic regression
x. Multi-replay
xi. Quadratic regression
xii. Simple and compound interest
xiii. Time-Value-Money calculations
xiv. No. of Regression Types 10
xv. Numeric Equation Solver
xvi. Parametric
xvii. Parenthesis levels 26
xviii. Pie chart
xix. Polar
xx. Random numbers
xxi. Rectangular
xxii. Roots & powers
xxiii. Single और double variable.

Accurate use of calculators

Calculators do not just buy everything. If it is not used properly then it is considered better not to use it. Calculators were created so that it could reduce our complexity and make us more efficient. Therefore, by using Efficient calculators, it not only saves our time but it also gives us more accurate results.
i. Statistical calculations
ii. TVM – Financial Calculations.

Advantages of Calculator:

As such, Calculator has more advantages than disadvantages. Calculators are allowed in schools and colleges to reduce the complexity of mathematical problems and to understand subjects quickly and quickly. They play the most role in accurate counting and saving time.

More number of problems can be easily solved repeatedly without any difficulty. Right now, the option of Calculator is meager in almost all electronic application devices. In Scientific Calculator, there is an option for a wide range of conversion data. Along with this, online calculators are being used very much by all users.


Disadvantages of the calculator:

With the use of more calculators, people also have to use calculators to do small calculations.
This reduces the desire of calculating some maths even in young children and calculators seem to be a better option.
Calculator has a huge hand behind not learning basic calculation skills.
Suppose calculators are used a lot for large calculations and this is also appropriate, but for easy calculation, you should use your brain, this makes the mind more sharp and also increases the problem solving capacity.

Future of calculators:-

The designs and technology of calculators have undergone considerable changes over time. As the need of people increased, similarly manufacturers also changed them in size and made them for the use of people. When Smartphones were invention a few years ago, these calculators were provided as an application and they were included in that device itself.

Therefore, to maintain their relevancy in the market, more sophisticated calculators were designed so that people remain attached to them. In such a situation, the looks of calculators are very bright, but for this, they have to look better than their smartphone calculators, perform better, and fix the complexity of people much better.








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